sam. Juil 4th, 2020

Réunion tripartite Chine-Japon-Corée du Sud

4 min read

Un sommet entre le Japon, la Corée du Sud et la Chine s’est ouvert le 4 décembre à Chengdu en vue d’une paix durable et d’une dénucléarisation dans la péninsule coréenne.

Alors que Pyong Yang intensifie ses essais, les 3 pays ont décidé de s’accorder pour accélérer les négociations en vue d’un accord de libre-échange (ALE) tripartite global de haut niveau, et de conclure le Partenariat économique global régional, couvrant la région Asie-Pacifique. Ils ont aussi convenu de travailler ensemble pour promouvoir le dialogue entre Washington et Pyongyang.

Au sommet de cette 8ème édition, plusieurs sujets ont été abordés : la péninsule coréenne et les tensions liées au nucléaire nord-coréen, le renforcement des échanges régionaux mais aussi le retour du dialogue entre Séoul et Tokyo. Ce fut aussi l’occasion du premier tête-à-tête depuis 15 mois, entre le premier ministre japonais Shinzo Abe et le président sud-coréen Moon Jae-in, suite aux  tensions liées à des brouilles commerciales et le léger rapprochement entre les 2 pays.

La réunion fut précédée le 22 décembre par le premier rassemblement des ministres du commerce des 3 pays asiatiques depuis la mise en place par Tokyo des restrictions sur les exportations de matériaux industriels clés vers la Corée du Sud en juillet. Au terme de la réunion, une déclaration commune visant à renforcer leur coopération dans de nombreux domaines (transfert énergétique, commerce électronique, et nouvelles industries de la quatrième révolution industrielle…) a été établie.

La Chine, impliquée dans une dispute commerciale avec les Etats-Unis depuis un an joue le rôle de catalyseur avec ses voisins, tous 2 alliés des Etats-Unis, tenant compte des différends avec Séoul et Tokyo.

Depuis 5 ans, les relations entre la Chine et la Corée du Sud étaient en berne suite à l’installation sur le territoire sud-coréen  en 2017 d’un bouclier anti-missile américain, le THAAD, qui aurait visé autant Pyong Yang que Pékin. Toutefois, malgré des sanctions économiques envers Seoul (interdiction de produits culturels en Chine, géant de la distribution fermé, chute du nombre de touristes chinois sans oublier l’espace aérien violé régulièrement),  le différend semble passé et « les relations sont complètement normalisées » entre les 2 pays « amis et partenaires » selon les responsables des 2 états et « la question de Hong Kong est considérée comme une « affaire intérieure chinoise » pour Séoul.

La Corée du sud doit se positionner entre la Chine, son premier partenaire commercial, garant d’une solution de crise nord coréenne, et les Etats-Unis dont le départ des troupes prévu depuis longtemps de Séoul pour Pyeongtaek devrait se faire en 2021. De plus, suite au retrait sud-coréen d’un accord d’échange de renseignements militaires signé avec le Japon, le conflit commercial entre Séoul et Tokyo a pris de l’envergure et les États-Unis semblent prendre parti pour les japonais.

Le Japon, bien qu’en désaccord avec la Chine sur le différend territorial en mer de Chine orientale, a relevé la « grande responsabilité des 2 pays pour la paix, la stabilité et la prospérité en Asie. Toutefois il a insister auprès du président chinois pour une amélioration de la transparence sur la région du Sichuan et éviter d’enflammer la situation à Hong Kong.

En conclusion, les 3 participants du sommet ont réaffirmé que la dénucléarisation de la péninsule coréenne et la paix durable en Asie du Sud Est étaient leur objectif commun. De plus, ils s’engagent à réaliser des progrès considérables de coopération dans des domaines d’intérêt commun de divers secteurs tels la protection de l’environnement, les sociétés vieillissantes ou les échanges entre peuples.

Concernant la Corée du Nord, principal sujet du sommet, la question  des travaux de connexion des voies ferrées et des routes entre les 2 Corées a été abordé, les matériaux et les équipements transportés devant franchir le 38ème parallèle en Corée du Nord. La Russie et la Chine ont du intervenir pour la première fois au Conseil des Nations Unies afin d’obtenir l’approbation de l’avant-projet de résolution demandant  d’assouplir des mesures punitives demandées par les Etats-Unis, contre l’administration de Kim Jong-un.

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